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Bacteria are classified by direct examination with the light microscope according to their morphology and arrangement. Examples include are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-like), coccobacillus (between a sphere and a rod), spiral (DNA-like), filamentous (elongated). Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages like Caulobacter and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores such as Myxococcus, Streptomyces. Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates. The cell structure of bacteria reveals many biochemical principles. The most elemental structural property of bacteria is their morphology. This session discusses more about bacterial morphology and metabolism.
Bacterial Pathogenesis is the origin of a disease through bacteria, while virulence is the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. Bacteria multiply rather than causing diseases. Bacterial infectivity is the resultant effect of a disturbance in the balance between bacterial virulence and host resistance. Virulence factors help bacteria to invade the host, cause disease, and evade host defenses. We need to develop newer drugs to effectively combat infectious bacterial diseases. Bacterial pathogenesis and virulence need to develop newer drugs to counter bacterial pathogenesis of infectious diseases. This session discusses more about bacterial pathogenesis and virulence and the latest technologies that counter bacterial pathogenesis.
Bacteria can attach to surface, produce slime, divide and produce microcolonies within the slime layer, and construct a biofilm, which provides an enriched and protected environment for their growth. A typical example of biofilm construction in nature is the formation of dental plaque mediated by the oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. The bacteria adhere specifically to the pellicle of the tooth by means of a protein on the cell surface. The bacteria grow and synthesize a dextran capsule which binds them to the enamel and forms a biofilm, some 300-500 cells in thickness. The bacteria are able to hydrolyze sucrose present in diet into glucose plus fructose. The fructose serves as an energy source for bacterial growth, whereas the glucose is polymerized into an extracellular dextran polymer that cements the bacteria to tooth enamel and becomes the matrix of dental plaque. The dextran slime on de-polymerization to glucose produces lactic acid within the biofilm or plaque that decalcifies the enamel and promotes dental caries. This session discusses more about bacterial biochemistry.
The primary mission of the clinical bacteriology laboratory procedures is to assist health care providers in diagnosis of infectious diseases. Due to the variety of specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory many of the steps related to the processing and workup of a specimen have remained manual. The specimen is inoculated onto an agar medium with plating protocols typically driven by the source of the specimen, the plates transferred manually to an incubator, the plates removed after a defined period of time and the culture examined by a technologist to look for potential pathogens. Clinical Bacteriology drive institutions to explore new and novel ways to provide continuous, quality care in a more affordable, efficient fashion. This session discusses more about clinical bacteriology.
Bacterial genomics is a scientific discipline that deals with the genome encompassing the entire hereditary information of bacteria. Bacterial genomics can be used to study bacterial evolution or outbreaks of bacterial infections. High-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled comparative analysis of large numbers of diverse bacterial genomes. Such studies are providing insights into the genomic changes that accompany changes in host specificity with possible implications for controlling transmission of pathogenic bacteria. Some bacteria can transfer to new host species, and this poses a risk to human health. Similarly human-to-animal transitions are recognized as a major threat to sustainable livestock production, and emerging pathogens impose an increasing burden on crop yield and global food security. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled comparative genomic analyses of bacterial populations from multiple hosts. This session discusses more about bacterial genomics.
Providing bacteriology diagnostics to veterinary surgeons and research institutes, we use a combination of modern and classic techniques to identify exposure to a range of veterinary pathogens. Culture team of microbiologists uses a variety of specialist media and techniques to give veterinary surgeons the diagnosis they need to inform the clinical management. Using both general culture but also specific and selective culture to rapidly grow, isolate and identify pathogenic bacteria, fungi and yeast. Coupling this with our panel of antibiotic sensitivities and we believe we offer the comprehensive service. qPCR translates our research into the genomes of several viruses into diagnostics tests. Our qPCR tests allow us to rapidly and sensitively detect DNA from the pathogen in clinical samples. Our research has shown that out Strangles (S.equi) qPCR has a sensitivity of 94% cf. 62% for culture. This session discusses more about animal bacteriology.
Aquatic microbiology deals with microscopic living organisms in fresh or salt water systems. It encompasses all microorganisms including microscopic plants and animals and it refers to the study of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their relation to other organisms in the aquatic environment. The scientific classification of bacteria divides them into 19 major groups based on their shape, cell structure, staining properties used in the laboratory for identification, and metabolic functions. Bacteria occur in many sizes as well ranging from 0.1 micrometer to greater than 500 micrometers. Some are motile and have flagella which are tail-like structures used for movement. The soil is the most common habitat of fungi, and they are also found in aquatic environments. Aquatic fungi are collectively called water molds or aquatic Phycomycetes. They are found on the surface of decaying plant and animal matter in ponds and streams. Some fungi are parasitic and prey on algae and protozoa. This session discusses more about aquatic bacteriology.
In veterinary bacteriology, it is very important to identify the nature of the bacteria that cause the infection in animals. There is a broad range of laboratory protocols, methods, and techniques that facilitate microbiological analysis. Specimens should be obtained from infected animals. The appropriate laboratory analysis will lead to the identification of the unknown bacteria that are the causative agent or agents for the infection. Specimens for laboratory diagnosis include samples like blood, urine, feces, milk, semen, nasal discharge, wound or abscess swabs, aborted fetus, biopsy specimens and necropsy specimens. Samples for necropsy involve liver, kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, lung, and even intestines. The laboratory methods and techniques start with a good sampling procedure, collection, and transportation of samples to the laboratory. In most of the laboratory investigations, Grams Staining is the first step to be considered. In this respect, the bacteria can be classified either gram-positive purple color or gram negative pink color. This session discusses more about veterinary bacteriology.
Several major groups of bacteria are considered very significant in animal health and welfare. Some of these bacteria are very pathogenic. Their severe pathogenicity cause different kinds and levels of infections to livestock, pets and wildlife. Generally bacteria are into different groups. The classification is based on the specific characteristic features and uniqueness of the bacteria. Studying the relationships between plants and phytopathogenic prokaryotes such as bacteria, actinomycetes, phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas result in the susceptibility, resistance, and tolerance of plants. The prime objective of the research is to develop information to reduce the harmful effects of bacterial diseases on plants. This session discusses more about phyto bacteriology.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology covers all aspects of the interrelationship between infectious agents and their hosts, with microbial and viral pathogenesis and the immunological host response to infections in particular as major topics. Originally named “Zeitschrift für Hygiene”, it was renamed multiple times in the light of scientific and medical advances and the emergence of new research disciplines, before adopting its current name Medical Microbiology and Immunology in 1971. Medical Microbiology and Immunology delves into the diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis, or treatment of diseases. These include Microbial Immunology, Immunology, Molecular Biology Genetics and Biotechnology, Aspergillus, Immunocompetent, Infectious Diseases, Antibiotic resistance mechanisms, RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional, Immunosuppressive Agents, Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins, Monoclonal antibodies, Tumor immunology, Tumor antigens, HLA Antigens, Epidemiology, Herpes viruses, Immune suppression caused by HIV, Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, Accinology, Molecular biology, Virology, Bacteriology, Parasitology, Mycology, Clinical medicine. This session discusses about the latest developments in Medical Microbiology and Immunology.
Infectious diseases are the world's greatest killers that present one of the most significant health and security challenges facing the global community. Several recent emerging diseases have been identified. On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. Enhanced surveillance was implemented in the United States for human infection with influenza A viruses that could not be subtyped. The S-OIV was determined to have a unique genome composition that had not been identified previously. This virologic analysis allowed for the development of a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) test to determine whether in any given person illness with the protean manifestations of cough, fever, sore throat, diarrhea, and nausea could be confirmed as a case. Armed with this critical tool, clinicians and epidemiologists are able to make case assignments to define and track the outbreak of emerging diseases or infectious diseases. This session discusses more about recent emerging diseases.
There is a growing association between communicable and non-communicable diseases in low-and-high-income countries and amongst the rich and the poor. In low-and-high-income countries especially, adults continue to be plagued by communicable diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB), while at the same time being increasingly threatened by non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent global data show that every year about 1.1 million people die from TB, 1.5 million people die from HIV/AIDS, nearly 5 million die from DM and over 9 million die from hypertension-related diseases. Reducing these deaths on a global scale will require not only the implementation of specific treatments for each disease but also the recognition that there are important interactions between different diseases and useful synergies and benefits that can be gained from exploiting overlapping treatments and strategies. There is a strong association between HIV and TB. HIV exacerbates the risk of TB, including recurrent disease, and increases morbidity and mortality in those with TB, while TB is one of the most important opportunistic infections and the cause of death in many persons living with HIV (PLHIV). This session discusses more about Communicable and Non communicable Emerging Diseases.
Rare diseases caused by infectious agents rather than genetic or environmental factors. Some of the diseases are: Acanthamoeba keratitis, Progressive vaccinia, Rat-bite fever, etc. The following are the rare infectious diseases: Acanthamoeba keratitis, Auto-brewery syndrome, Clostridium sordellii, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cysticercosis, Dracunculiasis, Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome, Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis, Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, Histoplasmosis, Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, Kuru (disease), Laryngeal papillomatosis, Lemierre's syndrome, Parechovirus B, Malakoplakia, Mucormycosis, Naegleriasis, Nocardiosis, Postvaccinal encephalitis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive rubella panencephalitis, Progressive vaccinia, Q fever, Rat-bite fever, Scarlet fever, Sealpox, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Trichodysplasia spinulosa, and Whipple's disease and many more. This session discusses more about rare infectious diseases.
Rise of irresistible maladies is because of different elements like societal, innovative, and natural factors that are dramatically affecting irresistible illnesses around the world. The re-emergence of existing old irresistible sicknesses which incorporate medication safe structures are likewise the causes to stress. Statistic, ecologic conditions and populace development, expanding destitution, individuals relocating to urban territories are a portion of the purposes behind the quick spread of irresistible sicknesses. Irresistible illnesses are spread through vacationers, foreigners, prepared sustenance, creatures that transmit maladies. Keeping the development of irresistible ailments is the need of great importance. In light of the general population and their great wellbeing, the disease transmission experts pair with legislatures of the world should attract a technique this respect to control and keep the spread of irresistible illnesses. This session talks about in insight about what measures and counter measures ought to be taken to capture and contain the spread of irresistible infections. How disease transmission specialists ought to instruct the people groups of the world with respect to irresistible illnesses and the threats innate in them. What advancements and applications ought to be received in containing the spread of irresistible sicknesses? Every one of these issues are to come up in this session for talks and open deliberations.
Understanding the nature and outcomes of associations among irresistible specialists is an absolute necessity with a specific end goal to discover successful measures to contain multi-pathogen contaminations. Numerous pathogen species taint a host cell at the same time is known as multi-Pathogen Infections. Whenever at least two infections contaminate a solitary cell is otherwise called multi-pathogen diseases. Evaluating the ability to precisely identify and measure the nearness of pathogen communications based on reproduced information is fundamental. Sequela is a sort of obsessive condition that outcomes from an ailment condition. For example, endless stoppage is a sequel of an intestinal check. Migraines, dazedness, sorrow, psychosis are sequelae of horrible cerebrum damage. This session tosses open the for dialogs and verbal confrontations on multi-pathogen contaminations and post-disease sequelae, and what should be done in managing these issues, the most recent advances, the innovative work, the fresher medications that can achieve great outcomes in containing multi-pathogen contaminations and post-contamination sequelae.
Public awareness is an overall approach to preventing child abuse and neglect and on various emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Finding resources and information on sharing a message and educating the public; making an economic case for prevention; creating community support and partnerships to prevent child abuse and neglect is the hallmark of public awareness programs. Developing an effective message, Tools for sharing your message, Public awareness activities and programs, building community support, preventing community violence, social media, building community, and building hope. A large portion of our work focuses on the spread of health information as it concerns threats like epidemics and natural disasters. These guides will bring you up to speed on the history, present day and future of any number of major issues affecting people worldwide. In addition, each guide identifies the measures taken to combat these dangers, be they medicine and science, grassroots lobbying or the volunteer efforts of ordinary citizens. This session discusses more about public awareness.
Most vaccines in use today were developed by techniques that were pioneered more than 50 years ago and do not represent the full potential of the field. The exploration of vaccines has led to the near elimination of several important diseases and has a great impact on health for a relatively low cost. The introduction of genetic engineering has triggered rapid proposal in vaccine technology and is now prominent to the entry of new products in the merchandise. Global immunization against certain diseases has led to the abolish of smallpox and has almost complete elimination of many other infectious agents including those causing diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, and Haemophilus influenza type B invasive disease. Three biggest killers such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, tuberculosis, and malaria have not yet been adequately concentrated by a vaccine effective enough to accomplish a similar result. In addition some common vaccine preventable diseases such as influenza and pertussis continue to cause significant anguish and fatality. Current advances in vaccine technology deriving from the function of genetic engineering are now providing the liberty to target new diseases. The use of plasmid-based methods also has the capability to urge the production of reassortant vaccines. This session discusses more about Advancements in Vaccines and Therapeutics.
The responses of microorganisms like viruses, bacteria cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens to selected factors of space microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude.